In Dependence by Sarah Ladipo Manyika Comprehensive Summary - | Download in PDF

In Dependence by Sarah Ladipo Manyika’s Summary - 2018/2019 | Download in PDF

IN DEPENDENCE by Sarah Ladipo Mayinka | Full Chapter By Chapter Comprehensive Summary Online for 2018 | JAMB Official Recommended Novel/Literature For UTME Students | Download In PDF  | Read JAMB Novel IN DEPENDENCE by Sarah Ladipo Mayinka Free Online.

The Joint Admission Matriculation Board, JAMB has given mandate that all students who will be sitting for the 2018 UTME examination will be tested on a Novel titled "In Dependence" by Sarah Ladipo Manyika’s in Use of English.

The Book "In Dependence" was written by a Nigerian-British Novelette Sarah Ladipo Manyika and published under the Legend Press in 2008. This was her first Novel.

The Book In Dependence, was later revealed by Cassava Republic, a literary press based mostly in Abuja, Nigeria, with a secure of authors that features Teju Cole and Helon Habila.

Here we will be publishing the Full Chapter By Chapter Summary Of Independence as it was the JAMB Recommended Novel For UTME for 2018.
The Copy has also been available in PDF and can be downloaded via the links provided.

Full Chapter By Chapter Summary Of Independence [JAMB Recommended Literature/Novel For UTME Students] By Sarah Ladipo Mayinka

In Dependence Summary - Chapter One [1] 

In chapter one, the story begins with preparations for Tayo’s imminent journey from Ibadan,
Nigeria to England to take up a scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford; a scholarship which was
in the past exclusively reserved for the whites, such that Tayo is the first Nigerian to win this
kind of scholarship. Tayo and his father are in high spirits as a result of this scholarship which
on-wishers described thus:
‘’Na special scholarship dey don make for de boy…’’ (page 8)
He is very glad that he is traveling away from home and strongly hopes for the best in the whiteman’s land. This is revealed by the narrator thus:
Pg 10: …”he had been looking forward to traveling far away from home- to having his

After him, his parents and siblings had finished greeting relatives in Ibadan, they move to Lagos
and also visit their relatives in Lagos. This kind of greeting is customary in Yoruba culture for
anyone who wants to embark on a long journey. After this, Tayo’s family and well-wishers
escort to the seaport where he boards the ship and sets sail to England.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Two [2] 

Tayo write a letter to his father, notifying him of his arrival at Oxford. He makes friends with
two students on the ship: Mr. Lekan Olajide from Ogbomosho and Mr. Ibrahim Mohammed from Kaduna.

He also informs his father about meeting with influential people; his being introduced to a British army Colonel who dined in their college, a Lord, as well as the fact that King Olav’s son is also a student like him at Balliol.

He also expresses his surprise at the strangeness of things in England compared to what he has been used to in Nigeria.

Such things include the cold weather as opposed to the warmness in Nigeria, the fact that people don’t greet each other in passing unlike Nigerians who put so much value in greetings and the unappetizing nature of English food.

He also sends his regards to his relatives.

Mr Ajayi, Tayo’s father replies his son’s letter telling him how thankful they are to God for getting Tayo safely to England. He spells out in the letter that he has told his colleagues at work about Tayo’s meeting with King Olav’s son and other influential people (in a boastful manner to his colleagues at work) and how impressed they are.

He also gives information about the progress that Tayo’s siblings are making in their studies, such as Bisi receiving the highest honors for geography, and Biyi being made school prefect.

Similarly, he talks to him about their high expectations from Tayo to do the family proud.

He promises to send him some articles in the newspapers.

He encourages his son to study hard and reminds him of the Ajayi motto: ‘’in all things moderation, with exception of study’’ which means studying should not be done with moderation but with extra effort.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Three [3] 

Tayo meets for the first time with Mr Barker (his headmaster Mr Faircliffe’s old colleague) and his wife.

The narrator describes the traits of the couple which is very peculiar to that of his father and mother. Isabella cooks wonderful meals in a way that reminds Tayo of his mother while Mr Barker talks politics like Tayo’s father.

They invite him to a drinks party for foreign students.

This is how he meets Christine, the famously beautiful third year student.

She is described as arrogant on account of her beauty but Bolaji (Tayo’s friend) is surprised that she interacted well with Tayo.

Christine and Tayo eventually become friends and even graduate into a romantic relationship.

Tayo sometimes feels guilty about Modupe, his girlfriend back in Nigeria, having started a relationship with another lady.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Four [4] 

Vanessa Richardson, Tayo’s colleague in Balliol College who is a young and beautiful English lady and whose father is a colonial man ( to Nigeria) and an unrepentant racist; is being cruelly beaten by the rain on a wet October night and gets drunk.

Her friends help her dry herself and take her home. She wakes up with a headache the following morning and manages to write her friend in Cambridge, Jane about an article she is trying to write on the status of women in Oxford and the trouble with Oxford men in response to a ‘silly article’ arguing that Oxford women are to blame for distracting the men. She complains in her letter that women there are treated like second-class citizens.

She also informs her that she has signed up for the Labour Club, the JACARI (Joint Action Committee Against Racial Inequality) and the College music. Unlike her father who is a promoter of racism in Africa, she advocates for the racial equality and emancipation of Africa.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Five [5] 

We are made to know that Christine had sent a letter to him few weeks after their argument that their relationship is over: she was called ‘clingy’ and the fear of her boy being snatched by some woman.

Here it is revealed that Tayo does not want a long-term commitment. A meeting holds (The West Africa society meeting) wherein he meets and makes new friends like Chris, Ike, Bolaji.

They exchange greetings in pidgin – their language of fun. He tries to wade off the thoughts of her by getting involved in some emotion-distracting activities such as setting the projector, welcoming men guests.

Tayo plays the film on Nigeria. It starts with a brief history of Nigeria’s colonial rule, serving as a backdrop to a much longer treatment of Nigeria’s recent independence.

Vanessa is interested in Senghor, Christine is interested in Okigbo. Tayo and Christine meet for a coffee at her place. Tayo remembers home whenever he comes here because of her cooking which reminds him of mama and the juju and highlife music she plays. Christine talks to him about her fears.

There is a reference to a book – lonely Londoners which Tayo jovially says that it will tell him why he shouldn’t look at English girls. Tayo kisses Christine to stop her from crying.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Six [6] 

Vanessa and Tayo are on a work discussing Malcom X’s visit to oxford. Vanessa says “I wish that English was less racist than America. Tayo says he believes in change especially in the younger generation. He says he has hope in the British. He shows a considerable level of optimism.

Here, Vanessa notices his habit and composure; picking up twigs to play with while he walk. His cleverness and yet his humility, “never flaunting his knowledge in the way she dislikes in men like Charlie and Mehul.

She deems/ evaluates him as being more serious and less flirtatious.

This makes her confident in him such that she is prompted to share something that has been bothering her, which she tags “small confession” she has connections with Africa: her father and grandfather were in the colonial service. She expatiates further about her father’s colonial tour in West Africa.

She strives to say this in a positive light so she does not create a bad impression in Tayo of his parents such as saying her father is “won over to the idea of African independence.

The manner of her narration compels Tayo to tell her she ought to be proud of him which makes her feel guilty.

He tries to make her feel at ease telling her his father has been in the British administration; first as a court messenger, then, an interpreter and currently an inspector (of police).

She has misled Tayo into thinking her father is one of those colonial officers being loved by locals.

She regrets this. She went to grab a drink where they were harassed by two men.

Vanessa becomes scared but lies to him that he wanted to punch them there.

Tayo names her Moremi. Moremi invites ‘Mr sincere’ (she also named Tayo this) to her grand parents’ Christmas party.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Seven [7] 

Vanessa travels to London for the holidays. Her parents go to pick her at the railway station. Her mother makes delicacies such as chicken pie and cake to welcome their daughter.

In spite of the long time she has invested in making these things, her husband does not appreciate it, complaining that it is soggy in the middle.

The narrator expresses Vanessa’s constant irritation towards her dad. Her mother talks about preparations for the Christmas party and asks Vanessa who is inviting.

Her father does not allow her to answer this question before he sharply grumbles that: ‘’better not be anti-apartheid people’’ because he has invited his mining friends.

Vanessa becomes angry as she dislikes the men who exploit the blacks in South Africa to enrich themselves.

Nessa is in a dilemma as she can’t tell those she has invited not to come any longer, yet she is worried about what they will think on meeting with her father’s racist South African friends.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Eight [8] 

The party comes to play. Tayo is being introduced to her grandfather who is very chatty, talking about their family ties with Lord Lugard, then her mum and finally the father with his colonial South African friend who mistake him for a servant.

He is glad when the party was over. He puts to record this day which at the time last year, he was with Chris.

He decides to write his father after a long break in writing him for weeks. In his letter, he describes the house of the Richardson as an old house (about 200 years old) but spectacularly punctuated with affluence having 7 rooms, a stable and servants’ quarters. It is at this point he hears a knock on his door which turns out to be Vanessa.

She comes to apologize for any embarrassment caused by her father. Tayo tells her that he is not offended. They also talk about Tayo’s parents and Tayo concludes that: “We all get embarrassed by our parents”.

Vanessa describes her father as conservative.

They move to the subject of polygamy and monogamy and she asked which suits him. He replies: “monogamy, happy monogamy”.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Nine [9] 

Vanessa visits Tayo in his room, Tayo is admired by Vanessa for his tidiness, for example, his way of organizing his jazz in one pile and high life in another.

It was initially his gentleness and genuineness, attentiveness, his build; fine muscles that set her mind aflutter. They change records after records.

They engage in an intellectual discourse, especially about books, essays and debates.

Vanessa asks to know more about Tayo’s parents which Tayo does.

He even shows her pictures of his family. After these, they play several records and dance to them. He kisses her on the forehead.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Ten [10] 

This chapter starts with plans for Easter between Tayo and his friends: Vanessa (his new girlfriend), Simon (his friend), and Nina (Simon’s girl).

Simon, one of his friends suggests that spend Easter in Paris.

Tayo and his girlfriend stay in Simon’s Uncle’s apartment.

They tour the beautiful city for days. The rowdy and bustling atmosphere reminds Tayo of home in Nigeria.

Vanessa buys him his first writing journal to record his thoughts.

In this, Tayo pens down the ecstatic love he has for Vanessa. The ultimate happens on their last full in France as they were preparing for a picnic when a telegram arrives, announcing the death of Tayo ex-girlfriend, Christine who was now Ike’s girlfriend.

Ike gives him the details of her death, mentioning that she committed suicide. Everyone is stunned and wonder why she did it.

Tayo, in deep thought tries to figure out the reason and concludes that he is to blame because he refused to respond properly the many letters she sent to him.

In her letters, she revealed her anxiety and despair about her academic success to please her family as well as her feeling of being an outcast “caught between two lands”, never fully belonging to England or Nigeria.

Her words keep resonating in his mind: “Bolaji tells us you are busy with your new girl. Please, spare a few moments for your old friend”.

His heart and eyes are heavy due to her death and similarly because he has lied to Vanessa that Christine was his cousin so that Vanessa does not get jealous. For the rest of the day, he grieves for Christine.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Eleven [11] 

Vanessa is worried about Tayo because of the loss of his supposed cousin, Christine (his ex).

She hopes that Tayo would return to France with her, but he is determined to spend the summer with the only family he has in England, his cousin, Tunde.

Therefore, she also decides to go to her family in France, although she dreads staying with her parents. Jane joins her there.

Vanessa’s mother (Elizabeth) receives a letter from the chatty meddlesome Nancy Murdoch (whose first letter of her name, ‘N’ stands for notoriously nattering nitwit Nancy), her husband’s friend’s wife, informing her that she and her husband would visit them over the Bastille holiday.

Vanessa’s mother’s reaction and that of her father’s (Jonathan) are symbolic of marriages without couple’s harmony wherein the ideas, opinions and mentality of the couple are always opposing, such that they cannot compromise their differences. The narrator says: ‘’father is delighted, mother is furious’’

This is why Mother also insists on inviting Uncle Tony, her brother.

Father detests Tony as he is unconventional to him and because he had the opportunity of achieving a place at Cambridge University which Vanessa’s father didn’t have. Mother likewise detests Nancy.

Mr. Murdoch and Jonathan have been friends since they met at Oxford in preparation for colonial service.

At the meal, there ensues a string of conversations particularly on Vanessa’s articles against American foreign policy and about Africa as she supports independence movements.

Her father comments in a pessimistic way about this: ‘‘Well, she might not be supporting them for long. Wait and see if they last’’.

Mother cautions him. Nancy also makes her disapproving remarks and she is being snubbed by Vanessa and Uncle Tony.

She is being described as having a ‘supercilious (arrogantly proud) tone and feigned generosity’. She even says that Tayo resembles Jonathan’s gardener in Jos.

Elizabeth becomes upset and leaves the room in anger.

Jane and Vanessa also leave for their room.

Vanessa is worried at the persistent misunderstanding that occurs between her parents. Jane persuades her not to be bothered and changes the topic of discussion to that of Vanessa’s boyfriend, Tayo.

Jane out of her own sexual experience with guys expects that Vanessa would have had sex with Tayo, but Vanessa denies. Truly, she has not. Jane also asks what impression Nessa’s parents have of Tayo and whether they wouldn’t worry about how people will view their children who would be brown (mulatto/ half-caste).

Jane hopes big for Tayo, foreseeing him as a Prime Minister or a Professor, and indeed, he becomes a professor.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Twelve [12] 

Here, there is a letter written by Vanessa to Tayo. She demands that he writes her many more letters, telling her how much he has missed her and dreamt of her; otherwise she ‘‘will start to wonder what he is up to with those northern lasses’’. She wishes he was there with her and talks about the warm weather.

She also narrates how much she dreams of him and how she has been enjoying the books he suggested to her for reading which she intends to review, such as Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease, that highlight the dilemmas of post-independence.

Vanessa comments on the ‘Perham review’ sent to her by Tayo. She suggests that he ought to provide background information on Dame Margery and that he should structure the review more tightly around his principle criticisms of Perham’s work which include:

An underestimation (dismissal almost) of Africa’s pre-colonial history (as the white racists think the Africans had no history and that their history only began when they visited Africa to colonize it)

Failure to acknowledge the potential of Africa’s new leaders

The belief that independence was granted too swiftly to African states.

Moreover, Tayo replies her letter after about two weeks.

He also teases her in his letter that she should not allow French men whom he heard are quite romantic to woo her and to remind them she has him who is sweeter than they are.

He reassures her that he will also ward off the northern lasses who admire him.

He also tells her that his stay at his cousin’s place makes him realize how fortunate he is to get a scholarship at Balliol College because he witnesses the life of struggle most African students live, engaging in ridiculous and exhausting jobs such as bakery and hospital work to make ends meet.

This highlights the unspoken suffering the blacks experience in the white man’s land, whereas those in Africa especially Nigeria think they live a life of fortune and comfort.

The narrator also hints at the air of racism all around England, some shown in action, some in speech and some in writing.

For example, there are signs around Northern England which read:

“No Dogs, No Irish, No Coloureds’’ (Africans and Indians).

The novel also shows that it is not only Africans who suffer discrimination, but the Pakistanis and Indians who do ‘the hardest and dirtiest work’ in the bakery, while the ‘least strenuous job in the bakery’ is reserved for the English; Pakistanis and Indians on the bottom, Africans in the middle and English at the top.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Thirteen [13] 

This chapter talks about the Tayo’s experiences in his cousin’s house, a house known as a ‘two up, two down’, with a living room and kitchen on the bottom floor, 2 bedrooms upstairs and a toilet outside. There is no bathroom, so bathing is done in a tin bath in the kitchen or at public baths.

Tunde shares his room with Tayo and Yusuf (Tunde’s friend) uses the living room as bedroom because two other Nigerians shared the second room, so no room for him.

Due to the absence of these two Nigerians, Tunde and Yusuf decide to have a party for Tayo and to
celebrate Gambia’s independence (although they are Nigerians but they rejoice so far it is an African country).

Before the party commences, Tayo realises how morally bankrupt Yusuf is. He says that his aims are to please ladies.

He mocks Tayo for being naive in drinking, smoking and being a womanizer.

They chat further and Tayo asks him if he intends to marry his current white girlfriend, Joyce.

He says the ‘English lasses’ are ‘’for fun, but not for marriage’’.

He says determinedly that when he is ready to marry, he will get married to a hundred per cent Nigerian, who will definitely be a good northern Muslim.

He emphasizes that ‘’Nigerian women are the best’’. He says: ‘’…Nigerian women know how to care for us, how to cook our food and maintain the culture for our children. But the English women…dem no fit do dat...’’. (page 84-85).

Tayo argues with him that there is no difference between a white woman and an African woman, stressing that a woman is to be loved for who she is and not her color.

The party begins. Joyce and her two friends Norma and Jean arrive. There are food, drinks and

Girls reach for Tayo’s hands in admiration. In the evening, he finds himself wrapped around a woman’s waist.

There came a shout and someone strikes him in the jaw and swears at him for touching his sister. Tayo fights back and dares the man to call the police if he likes.

A policeman arrives, arresting Only Tunde, Yusuf and Tayo since the others have fled.

They are tortured in different cells and eventually released.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Fourteen [14] 

Tayo returns to Oxford. He goes to a wedding (Yusuf’s). Tayo presumes that the bride must have fallen pregnant, considering the speed of arranging the wedding. The bride’s people are dressed in traditional Nigerian wedding lace (a hint that the bride is a black and a Nigerian), which surprises Tayo as he thought Joyce (Yusuf’s white girlfriend) is the bride.

Contrarily, the bride is Joy Williams, not Joyce. The vows are taken and rings exchanged.

Vanessa arrives to join Tayo at the event, in a ‘fine lace wrapper and buba’ which she borrowed from a friend.

Tayo becomes worried as to how he is going to tell Vanessa that the bride is not Joyce but Joy.

Vanessa, on hearing this exclaims.

This suddenly changes Vanessa’s mood and despite his entire attempt to cheer her up or make her talk becomes futile. Joyce appears at this moment, lurching towards the newlyweds:

‘’You bastard! Bastard!

Everyone is shocked.

This is her way of protesting against Yusuf’s abandonment of her and going for another woman. She is being led out to avoid trouble.

Eventually, Tayo and Nessa leave the party and on their way back to Oxford, Tayo succeeds in making her talk.

Filled with fury, she asks him why he lied to her, first about Christine being his cousin, while she was her lover in reality; and then about the bride. Tayo denies having lied about Christine.

Tayo fails in trying to calm Nessa. He even calls her the Yoruba name he gave her: Moremi. She objects:

‘’No! Don’t Moremi me’’. She then goes her way.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Fifteen [15] 

On New Year’s Eve, Tayo wakes up homesick. Suddenly, he decides to cook and goes to buy chicken from the Covered Market.

He is challenged by his ignorance of the spices to cook the chicken with, but eventually gets help from the stallholder.

As he chops the chicken, the bell rings.

It turns out to be Vanessa. He is so excited. They cook and eat together. Thereafter, they settled their issue.

They dance to music and make love.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Sixteen [16] 

Tayo’s favourite uncle, Uncle Kayode pays Tayo an unexpected visit.

This is an opportunity for Nessa to meet a member of Tayo’s family for the first time. They are to meet at the Randolph Hotel, Oxford’s finest hotel. Nessa is nervous and anxious about whether his uncle will accept her or not.

She relays the Yoruba greeting that she had memorized when he shows up.

Surprisingly, he makes her feel at ease with his friendly chats with her.

Vanessa is happy about this and hopes the rest of Tayo’s family will also be lovely.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Seventeen [17] 

Mr Richardson (Vanessa’s father) invites Tayo to lead his school assembly with a lecture on Nigeria which surprises Tayo. This is not the first time Tayo gave talks on Nigeria, but since the invitation came from the racist Mr Richardson, it has to be exquisite.

So, he takes his time in preparing all the necessary facts, and practising his delivery very well. The manner in which he started, beginning with his childhood held the boys’ attention.

The speech was a success.

After his speech, Mr Richardson shouts ‘’Bravo’’ and he leads Tayo to his study. Tayo is nervous as he does not know what he will say. Richardson starts: ‘’What are your intentions with my daughter?’’.

Tayo is caught off-guard.

Richardson continued by telling him that it is a difficult thing to embark on a cross-racial marriage, citing his marriage as an example.

He stresses that his in-laws do not approve of him, even though; his marriage to Elizabeth is not as difficult as that of inter-racial one.

His own kind of marriage was cross-class marriage, as his wife is from the upper-class. He therefore discourages Tayo from having any further relationship with his daughter.

Tayo returns to Oxford. Vanessa is eager to hear things out. She notices his quietness and asks him what the matter was.

He says he is fine.

Due to her persistence, he opens up and tells her that her dad didn’t approve of them.

‘’Vanessa, we can’t be together when your father is so opposed’’
Vanessa says she doesn’t care and that she will sacrifice her family for him.

She challenges him to be a man and go for what he wants. They depart. Tayo reflects on her challenge, concluding that she is right. He gets back to the college and he is told by the porter that there is a telegram waiting for Tayo. It was from his mother:

‘’Baba is in hospital, recovering. Return home immediately’’.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Eighteen [18] 

Tayo is back at home. His return witnesses a lot of negative happenings which transform Nigeria from a peaceful country into that of warfare and degeneration at different angles.

Everything seems strange for Tayo: the sticky heat, the smoke from his mother’s cooking and the kerosene lamps, the change in size of his siblings.

He is amused when his father, in attempt to call one of his children, he calls several names at a time as his children are numerous such that he can’t keep track of all his children’s names.

He then shouts ‘’ki ni won pe e paa paa?’’ (what name are you called exactly?).

Tayo starts to write Vanessa a letter.

He pauses to reflect on his last encounter with Mr. Richardson whom he despises for ‘bigotry’, yet he sees this as less struggle compared to the one he will face at home in his bid to persuade his own family to accept a white woman as his wife, remembering his father’s comment the previous day when a family friend announced that his son will be marrying a white woman: ‘’How will the woman fit in? ‘’.

The only relative who supports his talk of Vanessa is Uncle Bola (whose interest in women remains as strong as ever) in his comment: ‘’bring de lady come my house when she come Nigeria’’. It is at this point of reflection that Tayo gets a knock at the door. It is Remi, his younger brother who comes to inform him that there is a coup.

The whole courtyard becomes disorderly.

In the middle of the crowd, he sights Modupe, his first love who is now pregnant. He also meets her husband at the scene, the couple seeming happy.

Suddenly, Dele, the village drunk appears, confirming the coup and adding that some individuals tried to kill Ironsi the previous day.

Nobody believes him until Tayo’s father listens to BBC which confirms it. It also says curfew has been declared from 6:30pm. Tayo, realizing that everyone was watching him, enjoins them not to panic and suggests that they return to their homes.

In Dependence Summary - Chapter Nineteen [19] 

The news of the coup delays Tayo’s completion of his letter to Nessa. She eventually gets his letter although he didn’t say when he will be back.

She hopes to see him soonest.

There is an irony of situation when Nessa hopes he will be back by March, but this month marks the time his letters stopped.

She writes to him, phones and sends telegrams, none is replied. She becomes worried.

Nessa eventually receives Tayo’s letter after several weeks. He conveys his apology for taking so long to write to her.

He intimates her of the various factors that made him unable to write her, namely the coup, the start of the civil war and his father’s second heart attack as a result of these.

He states that his family is in a difficult time, so he isn’t sure when he will return to England.

Vanessa feels pity for him. She decides to stop waiting for him and rather go to meet him in Nigeria.

Tayo picks her up at the airport in Lagos and they check into a hotel.

Tayo shows her around and they eat at a restaurant.

They return to the hotel and make love.

The following morning, Tayo is seen pacing by the window. Nessa asks him what is wrong.

He says nothing and claims he has got to buy a few medicines for his father. He insists on going alone.

He returns without the drugs. He tells her he didn’t go to buy drugs but went for a walk to clear his head.

Something is obviously heavy in his heart which he finds difficult to talk about.

He eventually reveals that he has had an affair.

Vanessa is relieved at this, since is also guilty of having an affair with Charlie when Tayo stopped writing to her.

The ultimate happens when Tayo continues that the woman with whom he had an affair is pregnant. Nessa becomes mad at him and immediately walks out on him, gets out of Nigeria and out of his life.

This is how their relationship crashed.



In Dependence by Sarah Ladipo Manyika Comprehensive Summary - | Page Two
In Dependence by Sarah Ladipo Manyika Comprehensive Summary - | Download in PDF In Dependence by Sarah Ladipo Manyika Comprehensive Summary - | Download in PDF Reviewed by Lagos Universities Info on Wednesday, February 14, 2018 Rating: 5

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